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7.1 Principal conversion issues

First, Kerberos 4 and Kerberos 5 principals are different. A version 4 principal consists of a name, an instance, and a realm. A version 5 principal has one or more components, and a realm (the terms “name” and “instance” are still used, for the first and second component, respectively). Also, in some cases the name of a version 4 principal differs from the first component of the corresponding version 5 principal. One notable example is the “host” type principals, where the version 4 name is `rcmd' (for “remote command”), and the version 5 name is `host'. For the class of principals that has a hostname as instance, there is an other major difference, Kerberos 4 uses only the first component of the hostname, whereas Kerberos 5 uses the fully qualified hostname.

Because of this it can be hard or impossible to correctly convert a version 4 principal to a version 5 principal 1. The biggest problem is to know if the conversion resulted in a valid principal. To give an example, suppose you want to convert the principal `rcmd.foo'.

The `rcmd' name suggests that the instance is a hostname (even if there are exceptions to this rule). To correctly convert the instance `foo' to a hostname, you have to know which host it is referring to. You can to this by either guessing (from the realm) which domain name to append, or you have to have a list of possible hostnames. In the simplest cases you can cover most principals with the first rule. If you have several domains sharing a single realm this will not usually work. If the exceptions are few you can probably come by with a lookup table for the exceptions.

In a complex scenario you will need some kind of host lookup mechanism. Using DNS for this is tempting, but DNS is error prone, slow and unsafe 2.

Fortunately, the KDC has a trump on hand: it can easily tell if a principal exists in the database. The KDC will use krb5_425_conv_principal_ext to convert principals when handling to version 4 requests.


Footnotes

[1] the other way is not always trivial either, but usually easier

[2] at least until secure DNS is commonly available